It was once thought that Geomalacus maculosus lives only in wild habitats. The egg masses are about 3.5 cm Ã 2 cm (1.38 by 0.79 inches). LATEST; TV PROGRAMMES. The Kerry slug's scientific name is Geomalacus maculosus, where maculosus means "spotted" from the Latin word macula, a spot. The Kerry slug will suffer from âunmitigated noise disturbanceâ and habitat loss in the construction of the 32km South Kerry Greenway, a hearing in Tralee was told today. The Kerry slug lives in just a few places in the worldâsouthwestern Ireland, Portugal, and Spain. "On a new genus of terrestrial gastropod". prohibit the deliberate or non-deliberate âdeterioration or destruction of breeding sites or resting placesâ. Like snails, slugs are very important, providing food for all sorts of mammals, birds, slow worms, earthworms â¦ The Kerry slug (Geomalacus maculosus) is protected by the Wildlife (Amendment) Act 2000. , It was once thought that Geomalacus maculosus lives only in wild habitats. The Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, a British conservation organisation, operates a captive breeding programme in terraria at its "Endangered Species Breeding Unit". Within woodland the adults can be found on tree trucks and boulders always close to water. Revision of the genus, "Checklist of protected & rare species in Ireland", "Wildlife Act, 1976 (Protection of Wild Animals) Regulations, 1990", Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Kerry Slug Survey of Ireland (Official Website), Distribution and population dynamics of the Kerry Slug, Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, British Association for the Advancement of Science, "EU-protected slug Geomalacus maculosus and sympatric Lehmannia marginata in conifer plantations: what does mark-recapture method reveal about population densities? The albumen gland, which produces albumen for the eggs, is elongated and shaped like a tongue. Kerry slugs can also elongate themselves within crevices up to 12 cm (4.8 in). Habitat loss and loss of some of their favorite foods (lichens and mosses) have been hurting the populations of the unique little slug. The slug is also protected under the Wildlife Act 1976 (as amended) having been added under Statutory Instrument No.  Following a legal challenge to Ireland's transposition and implementation of the Habitats Directive, however, the Action Plan was superseded in May 2010 by a Threat Response Plan that addressed problems that arose when the European Court of Justice held that Ireland was not protecting the Kerry slug with the strictness the directive required for a species listed in annex 4. The radula, which is located inside the mouth, is a feeding structure that is unique to molluscs.  There is a caudal mucous pit situated between the foot and the body on the upper surface of the tip of the tail. An adult Kerry slug generally measures 7â8 cm (2.8â3.2 in) in length and is dark grey or brownish in colour, with yellowish spots. Species listed on Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive include Otter, all of Irelands Bat species, the Natterjack Toad and the Kerry Slug. Measures to protect the Kerry Slug, a protected species, have been outlined at the An Bord Pleanála oral hearing into the Kerry Greenway. The salivary and digestive glands are the same as those found in Arion species but the vestigial osphradium (kidney-like structure) within the mantle chamber is more distinct than it is in Arion species. In Ireland, seven Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) have been designated for its conservation.  Its conservation status in Spain for the IUCN criteria is vulnerable.. As at 2017, some of these sites have yet to be designated as Special Areas of Conservation:, The Kerry slug is primarily nocturnal. Birds, mammals, fish, and even the Kerry Slug all call this part of the world their home. The right and left muscles that pull in the eye-spot tentacles are attached at the base to the back edge of the mantle on the right and left respectively. A Kerry slug habitat assessment survey was undertaken in April 2018to determine the extent of suitable habitat for the Kerry slug within the final route alignmentand compulsory purchase order (CPO) boundary Refer to Appendix 11.1, Volume 3 of this EIAR for survey details and results. The pharyngeal (throat) retractor muscle is furcate (split) where it attaches to the back of the buccal bulb (mouth bulb); its other end is anchored on the right side of the body, just behind the site of attachment of the right tentacular muscle..  These slugs are difficult to measure accurately because of their unusual startle response. In 1988, Platts and Speight noted that only three of the Irish sites where the slug occurred were protected; Glengariff Forest, West Cork; Uragh Wood Nature Reserve, South Kerry; and Killarney National Park, North Kerry. Here the slugs â¦ The animals themselves are attractively marked with white or cream spots on a black or brown background. The Kerry slug is a distinctive spotted mollusc, which occurs in three broad habitat types, namely deciduous woodland, unimproved oligotrophic open moor or blanket bog,, and lake shores.  It opens into the atrium near the genital pore, where the muscular atrium is greatly but irregularly enlarged and connected by muscle fibres to the oviduct. The findings of the first research project have been published as an Irish Wildlife Manual No. the south-west of Ireland for which the Kerry Slug is the qualifying feature. Godwin-Austen noted that the part of the atrium just inside the genital poreâhe called this region the "vagina"âhas "a curious arrangement" of flattened folds. , The species has in unusual defensive behaviour; whereas most land slugs retract the head and contract the body but stay firmly attached to the substrate when they are attacked or threatened, the Kerry slug retracts its head, lets go of the substrate and rolls itself into a ball-like shape. The Kerry slug is not considered an agricultural pest, unlike some other slugs in the family Arionidae. Kerry slugs are found in forestry and peatland habitats in Ireland and is Irelandâsonly protected slug species.  In Iberia, juvenile Kerry slugs become active during twilight and adults become active at night, especially on rainy or very humid nights.  Juveniles reach maturity in two years, at a length about 2.6 cm (1.0 in). Species Name: Kerry spotted slug Scientific Name: Geomalacus maculosus Habitat: Grazes on lichens on rocks and trees in wooded areas Legal Status: Directive 92/43 Annex II IV Berne Convention Annex II Possible Designation: SAC NHA White-clawed Crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes, Ecosystems Services, Mapping and Assessment, Department of Culture, Heritage, and the Gaeltacht. This turns into the free oviduct after the vas deferens carrying the sperm branches off. The project is located at the Martin Mere Wetland Centre in Lancashire, England. , In the Kerry slug, as in all species within the family Arionidae, the alimentary canal of the digestive system forms two loops.. "Description of a new genus of pulmonary gastropods". The lateral teeth have two cusps. Special care â¦ Indication of interference competition between the EU-protected Kerry slug Geomalacus maculosus and the native tree slug Lehmannia marginata in Ireland . The project also provided information on the movements of slugs in woodland and on boulder fields. The locomotory mucus is tenacious and usually colourless but is sometimes yellow because of mixing with body slime. Woodlands are dominated by tree cover, with a diverse range of animals and plants, some of which rely entirely on this as a habitat. The synonyms are other binomial names that were given over time to this taxon by authors who were unaware that the specimens they were describing belonged to a species already described by Allman. 2013 - Kerry Slug Survey A Biology.ie Project run in conjunction with University College Galway. Within forested habitats, G. maculosus occurs as a hazel-brown to ginger-brown slug with yellow-gold spots, whereas in open areas such as blanket bogs, the slug occurs as a dark grey to jeâ¦ TV. Overgrazing by sheep, pollution, and loss of habitat have threatened it. The pit, which collects extra mucus, is not conspicuous, triangular and opens transversely. The nearest European site for QI Kerry slug is the Sheepâs Head SAC, located c. 11.8 km south of the Proposed Development.  The species has also been recorded at other SACs where it is not a selection feature, for example in Derryclogher Bog, County Cork. One â¦ It is listed under Annex II of the Habitats Directive and seven Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) have been designated for the species with a combined total area of approximately 95,337 hectares. , The food of Geomalacus maculosus includes lichens, liverworts, mosses, fungi (Fistulina hepatica) and bacteria that grow on boulders and on tree trunks. , Natura 2000 sites for this species in Spain include 48 localities (listed below, grouped by region). This decision was backed by studies of its distribution and ecology in Ireland, which concluded that evidence of a decline in Iberia and uncertainty over its status in Ireland tended to support its inclusion in the Convention. This characteristic is responsible for the common name of the species, the lettuce sea slug. , The vas deferens is long, complexly twisted, and rolled in a bundle. , The eggs are very large compared with the size of the animal. Authors have differed in their depictions of the Kerry slug's shell plate but they are consistent in showing it as a solid plate. National University of Galway is also carrying out research on the diet and genetics of the species. Kerry Slug - Geomalacus maculosus Allman, 1843 Images from the web. The Kerry slug, a species found in large numbers on the greenway route. In Ireland, it also occurs in upland conifer plantations and areas of clear-fell. Each row of teeth is composed of one median tooth and 10 lateral and marginal teeth on each side. It is also found in the provinces Beira Alta, Douro Litoral, Minho, TrÃ¡s-os-Montes e Alto Douro and in the Peneda-GerÃªs National Park. , The Kerry slug's upper tentacles are smoky-black or grey, short and thick with oval ends, and have eye spots at their tips. The Coasts and Islands of Kerry . (1844). The Kerry slug is a gastropod, a class of molluscs that includes all snails and slugs, including terrestrial, freshwater and marine species. 1 offspring of three species of arionid slug, resulting in a loss of âspecies-specificâ colour character-istics.  The Kerry Slug Survey of Ireland, a collaboration between the National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Applied Ecology Unit at the National University of Ireland, Galway, researched a "suitable monitoring protocol" for the species. III. , The jaw of the Kerry slug is about 1 mm (1/32 in) from side to side and is distinctly arched from front to rear, crescent-shaped and very wide with broad and slightly rounded ends. The Kerry slug lives in just a few places in the worldâsouthwestern Ireland, Portugal, and Spain. It is absent from limestone areas. Since 1990 the species has been maintained at the Endangered Species Breeding Unit, Martin Mere, under a lowâmaintenance husbandry regime. For instance, the Kerry slug which when threatened retracts its head & lets go of the substrate, rolls up completely and stays contracted in a ball-like shape. During daylight hours, the slug usually hides in crevices of rocks and under loose bark on trees. A typical slug habitat is near human-made structures, such as a garden, a farm or a garbage dump. SI 94/1997 as amended by EC (Natural Habitats) (Amendment) Regulations SI 233/1998 and SI 378/2005. The Kerry slug has an internal shell or shell plate that resembles those found in land slugs of the genus Limax; it is ovoid, solid and chalky with a transparent conchiolin (horny) base.  In the wild, eggs are laid between July and October, and from February to October in captivity. But as 44 acres of the slug habitat will be lost during construction work, Cork County Council has been ordered to recreate 45 acres of new compensatory habitat in the general area. Since 1990 the species has been maintained at the Endangered Species Breeding Unit, Martin Mere, under a lowâmaintenance husbandry regime.  In captivity, the Kerry slug has been fed on porridge, bread, dandelion leaves, lichen Cladonia fimbriata, carrot, cabbage, cucumber and lettuce. The Kerry slug or Kerry spotted slug, scientific name Geomalacus maculosus, is a rare species of medium-sized to large air-breathing land slug.It is a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc in the family Arionidae, the roundback slugs. , In Geomalacus maculosus, the atrial diverticulum is longer than the bursa duct; this situation is reversed in Geomalacus anguiformis.. Endangered Kerry slug could suffer unmitigated noise pollution if Kerry greenway get green light. The subgenus Geomalacus contains only one species, the Kerry slug; three species comprise Arrudia. Salmon (Salmo salar) N.B. The species appears to require environments that have high humidity, warm summer temperatures and acidic soils with no calcium carbonate. Experiments indicate the dark colouration is induced by exposure to light as the slug develops. However, it has been estimated that these pest species causeâ¦  There have been unconfirmed findings of this slug from Navarra.  Eggs are laid in clusters of 18 to 30, and are held together by a film of mucus. Blackwater River (Kerry) Special Area of Conservation (site code IE002173) Blackwater River (Kerry) Special Area of Conservation is selected for a single habitat listed on Annex I of the Habitats Directive 4030 European dry heaths The site is also selected for the following species listed on Annex II of the same directive: 1024 Geomalacus maculosus Kerry Slug 1029 Margaritifera margaritifera â¦ , Because of its perceived rarity and its restricted distribution, the Kerry slug is protected under the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention), EIS Bern Invertebrates Project. â¦  In the wild, the Kerry slug can live for up to seven years but in captivity, the lifespan rarely exceeds three years. He compared this to the calcareous darts in other genera; on the preceding pages he had described such structures in the Asian slug genus Anadenus). The opalescent lustre disappears in a few days and the eggs turn yellowish and later brown or black. Forested sites were a com-bination of conifer plantations and oak woodlands (Fig. It is not found in limestone areas. Endangered Kerry slug could suffer unmitigated noise pollution if Kerry greenway get green light. The Kerry spotted slug (Geomalacus maculosus), an EU protected species only found in parts of Ireland and Iberia, has the unusual trait of having two distinct color morphs that occur in different habitats.  In Ireland, it also occurs in upland conifer plantations and areas of clear-fell. In the marginal series, however, the ectocone gradually grows in size and importance as the margin is approached while the mesocone becomes almost correspondingly diminished. The Kerry slug is a hermaphrodite, as are all pulmonates. The Kerry slug or Kerry spotted slug, scientific name Geomalacus maculosus, is a rare species of medium-sized to large air-breathing land slug.It is a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc in the family Arionidae, the roundback slugs.. An adult Kerry slug generally measures 7â8 cm (2.8â3.2 in) in length and is a dark grey colour with yellowish spots. The bursa copulatrix for digesting spermatophore and spermâearlier literature refers to this as the spermathecaâis globular and has a short bursa duct. Within Ireland the habitat of G. maculosus has, until relatively recently, been believed to be re-stricted to the sandstone geology of the south-west of Ireland (west counties Cork and Kerry). Kerry slug â favourable conservation status but Irish population is important in a global context as the Iberian populations are severely threatened. Close. The atrial diverticulum has been proposed to be the functional equivalent, homoplasy) of a penis, acting as a copulatory organ. Where the ribs meet the upper edge, they sometimes form crenulations ( a scalloped effect) and may also produce the same effect on the lower edge of the jaw. The Irish yellow slug (Limacus maculatus) is quite different from the Kerry slug (Geomalacus malaculosus), albeit for its rather similar name.The first is a keel back slug from the Limacidae family, recognizable by the keel at the end of its foot.  Efforts were made to protect the slug from indirect damage, for instance from commercial forestry. It was most likely carried there by forestry machinery but it raises new issues of management & protection. , In Spain, the distribution of this species includes coastal locations in Galicia and extends through the Cantabrian Mountains as far east as Mount Ganekogorta in the Basque Country. The genital pore or opening lies behind and below the right eye tentacle.  The principal mechanisms used by the Directive to protect habitats and species are the creation of Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and the protection of species independently of their habitats by other means. Free-living slugs were photographed from six sites in Ireland across the western counties of Galway, Kerry and Cork (Fig. Slugs, in general, are omnivorous.  In Iberia it usually occurs in granite mountains, and on slates, quartzite, schists, In the Kerry slug, the radula is 8 mm (5/16 in) long and 2 mm (1/16 in) wide, and has 240 slightly curved, transverse rows of denticles; tiny teeth. Overgrazing by sheep, pollution, and loss of habitat have threatened it.  This is behaviour is unique among species in Arionidae and among slugs in Ireland. The site is of international importance and has been dated at older than 385 million years; probably second oldest in the world. Protection, monitoring, and captive breeding of the species have helped to keep them going. "On the French species of the genus. In young Kerry slugs the shell is very thin and convex, abruptly cut off behind, and with an extremely thin layer that projects in front and contains minute granules.. It feeds on lichens, liverworts, mosses and fungi, which grow on boulders and tree trunks. A proposed cycling and pedestrian "greenway" will disturb the habitats for the Kerry Slug and the Lesser Horseshoe Bat, it has been claimed in a High Court challenge. The median teeth are small, have one cusp and are slightly shouldered. Resourceful mum delighted by toy rental business demand; Covid-19: Two further deaths and 299 cases reported; More people feeling depressed during restrictions - CSO From 1991 to 1999 between 44 and 328 eggs hatched each year allowing a number of animals to be distributed to British zoos. One significant finding was that, contrary to previous opinion, the Kerry Slug was found in coniferous woodland often at quite high densities. In juveniles the shield shows lyre-shaped markings, as is the case in slugs of the genus Arion. Given that the slug has thus far been recorded exclusively at locations in Ireland and north-western Iberia, it can be said to tentatively possess a Lusitanian distribution. When these bands are present they usually extend the whole length of the body and are overspread by numerous, ovoid yellow spots that are distributed approximately in five longitudinal zones.  It was once reported as occurring in France but this has not been confirmed and that record is considered suspect. , The southernmost locality where this species is found is the mountain range Serra da Estrela in Portugal. One of the wonders of Kerry is its diversity. More research is being undertaken with NPWS funding on the distribution of Kerry Slug in conifer plantations and the impact of clear felling on these populations. The Kerry slug or Kerry spotted slug, scientific name Geomalacus maculosus, is a rare species of medium-sized to large air-breathing land slug.It is a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc in the family Arionidae, the roundback slugs. , A significant proportion of the Kerry slug's range in Ireland is protected by being included in Special Areas of Conservation (SACs). , The gland above the foot, the suprapedal gland, is deeply imbedded in the tissues and reaches far back. The only difference between the lateral and marginal series is that the ectocone (extra little side protrusion) present on the admedian teeth recedes in position and slightly diminishes in size in the succeeding teeth up to about the 20th row on the radula. Questo Pokémon non ha né braccia , ne gambe , ma si muove strisciando.  The sexual organs, called atriaâsingular:atriumâare funnel-shaped with fluted edges after mating.  The validity of this assessment, however, was put into question by the European Court of Justice ruling that held that Ireland was not monitoring the slug properly. Diet of a slug generally depends on their immediate habitat, availability of food and their species too. The next year, Allman exhibited them at the Dublin Natural History Society and published a formal description of the new species and genus in the London literary magazine The Athenaeum. In response to European environmental legislation, Ireland has designated seven SACs with the slug named as a "selection feature": Glengarriff Harbour and Woodland; Caha Mountains; Sheep's Head; Killarney National Park, MacGillycuddy's Reeks and Caragh River Catchment; Lough Yganavan and Lough Nambrackdarrig; Cloonee and Inchiquin Loughs, Uragh Wood and Blackwater River (Kerry). Only the freshwater habitat of salmon is considered for designation. , Within the mantle, most land slugs have the remnants of what was in the evolutionary past a larger, external shell. , The body of the Kerry slug is glossy and is covered on both sides with about 25 longitudinal rows of polygonal granulations. , This article incorporates public domain text from Taylor (1907). Biologia Fisionomia. Geomalacus maculosus is also protected by the European Union's Habitats Directive and has been listed as an Annex II and Annex IV species since 1992.  It can be carnivorous in captivity; there are records of it consuming the snail Vitrina pellucida. The Kerry spotted slug Geomalacus maculosus has a restricted European range and may be threatened by loss of habitat. The right and left tentacular muscles, which pull in all four of the tentacles, divide early for the upper and lower tentacles but only the muscles of the ommatophoresâthe two upper tentacles, which have eye spotsâare darkly pigmented. u/suitrael. Within woodland the adults can be found on tree trucks and boulders always close to water. These lyre-shaped markings become indistinct as the slugs grow larger. Habitat fragmentation. ", "Land and freshwater shells peculiar to the British Isles", "Note on the geographical distribution of, Bridges & Species: Post-Glacial Colonisation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kerry_slug&oldid=989681440, Taxa named by George Allman (natural historian), Articles with German-language sources (de), Articles with French-language sources (fr), Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with dead external links from May 2017, All Wikipedia articles written in Irish English, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, establish âa system of strict protectionâ for listed species, prohibit âdeliberate disturbance â¦ particularly during the period of breeding, rearing, hibernation and migrationâ, prohibit âdeliberate destruction or taking of eggs from the wildâ. Habitat loss and loss of some of their favorite foods (lichens and mosses) have been hurting the populations of the unique little slug.  The English-language common name is derived from County Kerry in the south-west of Ireland, where the type specimens that were used for the formal scientific description were collected. Allman, G. J. , The body length of adult Kerry slugs is 7â8 cm (2.8â3.2 in). Kerry Slugs are protected in all of the locations that they are found in. The Kerry slug will suffer from âunmitigated noise disturbanceâ and habitat loss in the construction of the 32km South Kerry Greenway, a hearing in Tralee was told today. They concluded that the species could not be adequately safeguarded with only three sites and supported its inclusion in the Bern list, to which the Irish government is a signatory. Under this definition, no monitoring of the Kerry Slug had been undertaken in Ireland as of May 2010. Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences", "Genetic study reveals close link between Irish and Northern Spanish specimens of the protected Lusitanian slug, Kerry Slug researcher visits Baile BhÃºirne and Beara, "Habitat suitability modelling of four terrestrial slug species in the Iberian Peninsula (Arionidae: Geomalacus species)", "Husbandry and breeding of Kerry spotted slug", "Slugs of Portugal. The Kerry Slug, Geomalacus maculosus is listed on Annex II and IV of the EU Habitats Directive 92/43/EC.  The Kerry slug's predators include larvae of the third instar of the fly Tetanocera elata.. The vas deferens and the bursa duct open nearly together into the far extremity of the atrium, the duct into which both the male and the female systems open and which connects to the outside via the genital pore. The slug is widespread in the Old Red Sandstone areas of the National Park and populations there are contiguous with those outside the National Park boundaries. The largest eggs are more elongate, being 8.5 mm Ã 4.25 mm (0.335 by 0.167 inches); the smallest are more ovoid and are 6 mm Ã 3 mm (0.24 in Ã 0.12 in).  In addition, St. Gobnet's Wood SAC (which was designated in relation to other selection criteria) was expanded in 2008 to protect Cascade Wood, a small area of woodland which is inhabited by the slug. 1).  It is presumed that the bursa retractor muscle retracts the atrial diverticulum. , Behind the animal's head is the shield-shaped outer surface of the mantle, which is about a third of the length of the body when the slug is actively crawling and thus extended; when the slug is stationary and contracted, the shield is about half the length of the body. An invertebrate species with a distribution similar to theHiberno-lusitanian plant species is the Kerry slug (Geomalacus maculosus). Unlike most slugs, its main habitats are woodlands and fields, rather than urban areas.  The skin mucus is usually pale yellow and varies in viscosity. Black slugs predominate in heathlands, whereas the brown form is only found in woodlands. The slug is widespread in the Old Red Sandstone areas of the National Park and populations there are contiguous with those outside the National Park boundaries. A Kerry slug habitat assessment survey was undertaken in April 2018to determine the extent of suitable habitat for the Kerry , CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. The Kerry slug has been protected since 1990 under the Irish. Posted by. Natural Park of Fuentes Carrionas and Fuente Cobre-MontaÃ±a Palentina, Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, "BeitrÃ¤ge zur Kenntniss der portugiesischen und der ostafrikanischen Nacktschnecken-Fauna", "Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles du Portugal. Quick facts. Various authors have depicted its reproductive system: Godwin-Austen (1882), Sharff (1891), Simroth (1891, 1894), Taylor (1907), Germain (1930), Quick (1960) and Platts & Speight (1988). It is found only in the west of Ireland, and the north of Spain and Portugal. Typically, it is a small, strong, ribbon-like structure that bears numerous complex rows of tiny teeth across it. â¦ The hermaphroditic duct, where sperm is stored, is long and convoluted, and ends in a small, spherical, seminal vesicle.  The full scientific name, including the taxonomic authority, is Geomalacus maculosus Allman, 1843.  The elongated portion of the atrium further from the genital pore than the insertion of the oviduct is termed the atrial diverticulum. The slug with relatives in Portugal has been found only in Cork and Kerry until recently when it emerged in Connemara and is one of the southwestâs Iberian species. The Kerry Slug, Geomalacus maculosus (Arionidae), which is restricted globally to Ireland and the northern Iberian Peninsula, is protected under European law. All are semi-translucent, milky-white or opalescent when fresh, although some of the larger and more elongate eggs have a semi-transparent area at the smaller end.